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1 Recent work has turned more towards the social and cultural role of the landed aristocracy, presenting it either as the agent of the assimilation and incorporation of new forces into the establishment, or as the means for excluding new forces from the inner circles of influence through its tenacious exclusiveness. Wilson, eds., Land and industry (Newton Abbot, 1971), David Cannadine, Lords and Landlords (Leicester, 1980), and F. 2 Martin Wiener, English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit, 1850-1980 (Cambridge, 1981).
The Landed Aristocracy and Business Elites in Victorian Britain. Spring, ed., European Landed Elites in the Nineteenth Century (Baltimore, 1977), J.
On the one hand, Martin Wiener has argued in a persuasively written essay that Victorian industrialists and businessmen were lured by the attractions of the aristocratic-gentry culture, propo- gated through public schools and the charms of the country life-style, into losing their entrepreneurial vigour.2 On the other hand, those who have studied the relations between the new wealthy and the established landed aristocracy at the sensitive point of acquisitions of landed estates, W. Rubinstein and Lawrence Stone and his wife, have con- 1 There is a large literature. Spring, The English Landed Estate in the Nineteenth Century (Baltimore, 1963), D.
In order to start winning again, liberals must answer two simple questions: what is conservatism, and what is wrong with it?
As it happens, the answers to these questions are also simple: Q: What is conservatism?
Economic inequality and regressive taxation, while certainly welcomed by the aristocracy, are best understood as a means to their actual goal, which is simply to be aristocrats.
More generally, it is crucial to conservatism that the people must literally love the order that dominates them.
In fact conservatives hold a wide variety of opinions about such secondary formal matters.
For conservatives, rather, democracy is a psychological condition. The defenders of aristocracy represent aristocracy as a natural phenomenon, but in reality it is the most artificial thing on earth.
The module will be taught through a combination of lectures and seminars.
Learning activities will include independent study of the course material, oral presentations and small group work as appropriate.