More concretely: Imagine a student writing a term paper.
He or she plagiarizes, which is to say, he or she copies and pastes text from other sources without acknowledging them.
These ranged from an active for-profit affiliation to an expectation of going through the “revolving door” into a salaried or shareholder position at a university after leaving the public sector.
For-profit affiliations with universities were also common among lower-level heads of departments for higher education in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Russia, and Serbia, as well as among education-focused legislators in Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Moldova, Serbia, and Ukraine (Milovanovitch et al.
The student submits this paper and receives a grade for it. Taking it a step further, let’s say that the faculty member who is responsible for grading this paper chooses to ignore the plagiarism.
In this case, the faculty member is misusing an entrusted power for private gain, in the broader sense (Denisova-Schmidt ). The challenges of defining “corruption” might also be explained by the fact that corruption is a crime.
All these types might be judged differently depending on the perspective (insiders or outsiders) and the national/cultural context.
Bribery The offering, promising, giving, accepting, or soliciting of an advantage as an inducement for an action that is illegal, unethical, or a breach of trust.
Corruption is typically used as a generic term for a wide range of actions, including favouritism, nepotism, advantage granting, cronyism, and many other activities.
Table illustrates some other types of corruption as well as some examples from the higher education sector.