Masculinity As Homophobia Essay

Masculinity As Homophobia Essay-57
An appendix lists items loading on the Condemnation-Tolerance factor.This article considers the proposition that to be "a man" in contemporary American society is to be homophobic -- that is, to be hostile toward homosexual persons in general and gay men in particular.For heterosexuals, personal contact with lesbians and gay men represents the most promising strategy for reducing homophobia.

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Starting from empirical observation of links between homophobia and gender, heterosexual masculinity is discussed as a culturally constructed gender identity that has been affected by the historically recent emergence of gay identities.

The paper then discusses how heterosexual masculine identity is constructed by individuals, and how expressing hostility toward gay people enhances such an identity.

Intrinsics, however, tended to be more prejudiced against gay people than were extrinsics.

It is suggested that an intrinsic orientation does not foster unequivocal acceptance of others but instead encourages tolerance toward specific groups that are accepted by contemporary Judeo-Christian teachings.

Attitudes toward outgroups may serve different psychological functions for persons with extrinsic and intrinsic orientations.

This paper argues for the value of a reformulated and reoperationalized functional approach to attitudes.

This study examined the influence of religious orientation on attitudes toward an out-group not widely accepted by contemporary religions (lesbians and gay men).

Using questionnaire data from 126 White, heterosexual students on four university campuses, an extrinsic orientation was found to be positively correlated with racism, whereas an intrinsic orientation was not.

This paper discusses the basis for differences among heterosexuals in their reactions to gay people, with special emphasis on the issue of gender differences.

Three studies conducted with students at 6 different universities revealed a consistent tendency for heterosexual males to express more hostile attitudes than heterosexual females, especially toward gay men.


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