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The second camp sitting on the other side of the fence is the advocates for nurture.
Nature represents what we are born with and cannot control.
Our biological make up is determined by the genes we receive from our parents (reside in the 23 pairs of chromosomes, 23 from each parent.) “A gene is a segment of DNA or a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product,” (Tortora, Microbiology. 575.) These genes not only affect our outlook, but also play a significant role in determining our behavior and our well-being.
She insisted on every little thing returned to its proper place,… I’m reacting to my mother, who was an absolute slob.”, (Neubrauer, Peter P 21) In this example, we see a natural preference based on heredity.
Both twins blamed their mothers for their behaviors, while none of the mothers required such neatness.
Another study on heredity and alcoholism conducted by Goodwin (1973) indicated that adoptees with alcoholic parents were four times more likely to become alcoholics than those without, although there was no such relationship with alcohol misuse in adoptive parents, (Pelle, Stanton. Even though scientists have only identified 16,000 out of the total 100,000 genes, many psychological diseases are on the verge of being unraveled.
Take for instance schizophrenia, a disease characterized by (hallucinations, delusions, flat or inappropriate emotional expression, paranoia and suspiciousness).In fact, the more we understand about development and behavior, the more obvious it becomes that nature and nurture are similarly influences rather than determinants, not only singly but also in combination.Here below, I will endeavor to expose the leading theories dealing with the question of nature vs. I will also try to present the third, new-emerging approach meant to solve the mystery of “What is it that makes us who we are? We animals exist for their preservation and are nothing more than their throwaway survival machines.” This is what Richard Dawkins states in his book: The Selfish Gene.“Through new genetic studies, clinical observation, and research on identical twins and adopted children, we are becoming increasingly aware that many of the human characteristics previously taken for granted as products of childhood rearing and environment are rooted in the genetic matrix.”, (Neubrauer, Peter.p 38) Studies of identical twins reared apart have provided researchers with a lot of clues about the role of heredity in everyday life behavior.The new school emerging to help bring the nature nurture argument to rest professes that there is no war between nature and nurture.Indeed, such war would be absurd because it is the interaction of nature and nurture that defines our behavior and well-being. “, cannot be answered by: THE DEVIL MADE ME DO IT, or better yet, MY GENES MADE ME DO IT.” As one grows from infancy to adulthood, social experience plays a critical and constant role in the regulation of growth , behavior and emotions,” (Glick, Marion E.) Here we are told that social deprivation at different stages of development can lead to abnormalities in the stress hormone system, which may produce severe and long-lasting physical, neural and psychological consequences.It is also interesting to consider the gender differences due to the change in environment.People in this camp argue that man is a product of his environment.Some extremists went as far as saying: give us any new born infant and we will shape him/her just the way we want, by placing him/her in the desired environment.