There is a need, therefore, to consider the quality of the recess environment, which has recently been operationalized as including the safety and structure of the environment, adult engagement and supervision, student social behaviors, and transition periods .
The results of this content analysis were the basis for creating an observational protocol for playground play derived from use of the original ADL-PP (Table 1).
Next, inter-rater reliability of observational coding for each play domain was tested using a one-way random effects intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC).
To facilitate independent reliability ratings, data assessors were instructed not to discuss frequency counts with other raters, however coordinated their data collection to ensure they conducted their observations at the same time and in the same direction (i.e., counts all took place left to right to control for natural momentary changes in play).
Observations for boys and girls were coded separately.
Stellino and Sinclair  found that children (N = 444; 3rd–5th graders; 49% female) from a suburban Rocky Mountain region of the USA reported running (79.5%) and talking with friends (60.8%) as the most common activities at recess.
However, self-report of activities can be prone to selection or retrieval biases, and Sinclair and Stellino  further suggested that this tool may be adaptable to an observational form of measurement.An inductive content analysis of children’s type of play and activity engagement during recess was conducted to categorize activities.Inter-rater reliability of observations was assessed at 49 points that spanned 22 unique recess periods at four different schools.Based on these premises, we used a modified version of the ADL-PP to assess the reliability and validity of an observational measure of children’s play patterns.Data in the current study were collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA from 2014 to 2017.Activities that were redundant were combined into a singular category (e.g., straight slide, tube slide, curly slide, were all coded into slide).Next categories of activities were coded into higher order groupings (e.g., slide was coded into jungle gym).While previous research has shown that observers can be trained to enhance reliability on the ADL-PP, and that agreement between observer reports and children self-report is generally around 75% , these data were produced in small recess sessions ranging from eight to 29 participants.In considering the observational use of the ADL-PP, researchers may be able to examine larger samples of what children do at recess, optimal levels of activity engagement, and better tailor interventions to the needs and general play preferences of children (e.g., more targeted approach to buying equipment and structuring environments).While previous research has shown differences between boys and girls PA levels at recess , and that environmental interventions are effective for increasing PA at recess , less attention has been given to children’s play preferences that may contribute to both PA promotion, as well as social development during recess.The activities of daily living-playground play (ADL-PP) is an existing measure that was developed for self-reported activities in children older than 7 years of age [7, 8].