Simple Essays On The Marshall Plan Of 1948

Simple Essays On The Marshall Plan Of 1948-75
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Of course, they have the benefit of seeing how it all turned out—that is, through the presidencies of Ronald Reagan and George H. Marshall, and the other wise men of Truman’s foreign policy team look pretty good: strong and prudent and correct. Marshall was apolitical: he never voted, refused to run for office, and unequivocally declined even to be considered a candidate for election.

But he was conservative in some obvious ways—in temperament; in his own fiscal prudence; in his high regard for exemplars such as George Washington and Robert E.

The period was in fact marked by deflationary policies, unemployment and recession.

The one unambiguous outcome was the full restoration of the propertied class.

Armin Grünbacher, lecturer in modern history at the University of Birmingham, presents an alternative reading, one that takes into account the harsh realities of the Cold War.

He points out that “the originally propagated view that the Marshall Plan was an altruistic endeavor through which the U. saved Europe from collapse and starvation has long been dismissed and replaced with a more realistic approach to international affairs.” In the years immediately following the Second World War, “ Postwar conservatives were leery of fighting the Cold War on these terms.This is usually described along the lines of: "After World War II, the United States unselfishly built up Europe economically, including our wartime enemies, and allowed them to compete with us." Even those today who are very cynical about U. foreign policy, who are quick to question the White House's motives in Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere, have little problem in accepting this picture of an altruistic America of the period 1948-1952. foreign policy from the Russian Revolution up to World War II, pausing for the war until the closing months of the Pacific campaign, when Washington put challenging communism ahead of fighting the Japanese.But let's have a look at the Marshall Plan outside the official and popular versions. This return to anti-communism included the dropping of the atom bomb on Japan as a warning to the Soviets. --Pushing for the creation of the Common Market and NATO as integral parts of the West European bulwark against the alleged Soviet threat.Lee; in his devotion to God and country; and in his commitment to the traditional virtues of a gentleman: duty and honor, personal modesty and chastity, humility and self-sacrifice.One of his chief biographers, Ed Cray, labels Marshall a “conservative Democrat.” In most important respects, even the massive spending program for which Marshall won the Nobel Peace Prize is recognizably conservative.[For more on various aspects of the Marshall Plan see, for example, Joyce & Gabriel Kolko, Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War 2; Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower; West-Bloc Dissident: A Cold War Memoir; Freeing the World to Death: Essays on the American Empire. (To make a blog comment about this or other stories, you can use your normal e-mail address and password.Ignore the prompt for a Google account.) To comment to us by e-mail, click here.Thus did the Marshall Plan help lay the foundation for the military-industrial complex as a permanent feature of American life.It is very difficult to find, or put together, a clear, credible description of how the Marshall Plan played a pivotal or indispensable role in the recovery in each of the 16 recipient nations.The CIA also skimmed large amounts of Marshall Plan funds to covertly maintain cultural institutions, journalists, and publishers, at home and abroad, for the heated and omnipresent propaganda of the Cold War; the selling of the Marshall Plan to the American public and elsewhere was entwined with fighting "the red menace." Moreover, in its covert operations, CIA personnel at times used the Marshall Plan as cover, and one of the Plan's chief architects, Richard Bissell, then moved to the CIA, stopping off briefly at the Ford Foundation, a long-time conduit for CIA covert funds. The Marshall Plan imposed all kinds of restrictions on the recipient countries, all manner of economic and fiscal criteria which had to be met, designed for a wide open return to free enterprise. The great bulk of Marshall Plan funds returned to the United States, or never left, to purchase American goods, making American corporations among the chief beneficiaries.The program could be seen as more a joint business operation between governments than an American "handout"; often it was a business arrangement between American and European ruling classes, many of the latter fresh from their service to the Third Reich, some of the former as well; or it was an arrangement between congressmen and their favorite corporations to export certain commodities, including a lot of military goods.

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  • The Marshall Plan Hoover Institution
    Reply

    An essay by Hoover fellows Peter Duignan and the late Lewis H. Gann on. on April 3, 1948--just in time to influence the Italian election in that year. The Marshall Plan did not, in and of itself, cause Western European economic recovery. For example, at the Doboelman soap works in Holland, American.…

  • IB History Leaders and nations Graded student examples
    Reply

    On this page, you will find sample essays for this section - comparing leaders or nations from. Compare and contrast the roles of two Cold war leaders from different. In 1948, Truman and the West introduced a new currency into the Western.…

  • The Other Side of the 'Marshall Plan' - Consortiumnews
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    In accepting this picture of an altruistic America of the period 1948-1952. But let's have a look at the Marshall Plan outside the official and popular versions. For details, see William Blum's essay on the use of the atomic bomb. For more on various aspects of the Marshall Plan see, for example, Joyce.…

  • Post-war reconstruction and development in the Golden. -
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    Ica in the period from 1948 to 1952 through the Marshall Plan. Generous. For example, the period underwent business cycles, although they were certainly.…

  • AQA GCSE History End of Year Exam Revision Unit 1 International.
    Reply

    How did the Cold War develop 1949-55. We saw the Marshall Plan as the Americans wanting to. For example, at the end of WW2, the Soviet Union took.…

  • The Marshall Plan for Rebuilding Western Europe - Constitutional.
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    Constitutional Rights Foundation The Marshall Plan for Rebuilding Western Europe. 1. H. R. 1948, at the peak of the debate on the Marshall Plan, communists. The basic purpose of the Marshall Plan, according.…

  • The Cold War JFK Library
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    The Marshall Plan 1947 provided billions of dollars in economic assistance to. When the Soviets cut off all road and rail traffic to the city in 1948, the United.…

  • The Marshall Plan and the value of enlightened self-interest.
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    On Europe rescue plan's 70th anniversary, the idea that U. S. must invest in. during a ceremony at the harbor of Bordeaux, France, on May 10, 1948. The Paris climate accord was a good example of the principle, and the.…

  • Origins of Cold War Revision
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    What is a Cold War. Marshall Aid was offered as part of the Marshall Plan which was an attempt to. In June 1948, Stalin ordered that all traffic between West.…

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