Vitamins Research Paper

Vitamins Research Paper-65
The decline in use of β-carotene and vitamin E supplements followed reports of adverse outcomes in lung cancer and all-cause mortality, respectively.In contrast, sales of multivitamins and other supplements have not been affected by major studies with null results, and the U. supplement industry continues to grow, reaching billion in annual sales in 2010.

The decline in use of β-carotene and vitamin E supplements followed reports of adverse outcomes in lung cancer and all-cause mortality, respectively.In contrast, sales of multivitamins and other supplements have not been affected by major studies with null results, and the U. supplement industry continues to grow, reaching billion in annual sales in 2010.This evidence, combined with biological considerations, suggests that any effect, either beneficial or harmful, is probably small.

After a median follow-up of 4.6 years, there was no significant difference in recurrent cardiovascular events with multivitamins compared with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07]).

The trial was limited by high rates of nonadherence and dropouts.

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Evidence is sufficient to advise against routine supplementation, and we should translate null and negative findings into action.

The message is simple: Most supplements do not prevent chronic disease or death, their use is not justified, and they should be avoided.Other reviews and guidelines that have appraised the role of vitamin and mineral supplements in primary or secondary prevention of chronic disease have consistently found null results or possible harms (5, 6).Evidence involving tens of thousands of people randomly assigned in many clinical trials shows that β-carotene, vitamin E, and possibly high doses of vitamin A supplements increase mortality (6, 7) and that other antioxidants (6), folic acid and B vitamins (8), and multivitamin supplements (1, 5) have no clear benefit.Adherence to the intervention was high, and the large sample size resulted in precise estimates showing that use of a multivitamin supplement in a well-nourished elderly population did not prevent cognitive decline.Grodstein and coworkers’ findings are compatible with a recent review (3) of 12 fair- to good-quality trials that evaluated dietary supplements, including multivitamins, B vitamins, vitamins E and C, and omega-3 fatty acids, in persons with mild cognitive impairment or mild to moderate dementia.Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice.Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Crewe JM, Morlet N, Morgan WH, Spilsbury K, Mukhtar AS, Clark A, Semmens JB. Principal Investigator Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Principal Investigator AREDS 2 Past consultant to Pfizer regarding Age-Related Macular Degeneration Jessica Fargnoli; MPH, Joyce Greenleaf, MBA; Melissa Hafner, MPP Department of Health and Human Services, Boston, MA January 3, 2014 More reasons to be wary of supplements In their editorial, Guallar and colleagues (1) draw attention to mounting evidence that most vitamin and mineral supplements are not beneficial for chronic disease prevention and in some cases may be harmful.Although future studies are needed to clarify the appropriate use of vitamin D supplementation, current widespread use is not based on solid evidence that benefits outweigh harms (10).With respect to multivitamins, the studies published in this issue and previous trials indicate no substantial health benefit.Although available evidence does not rule out small benefits or harms or large benefits or harms in a small subgroup of the population, we believe that the case is closed— supplementing the diet of well-nourished adults with (most) mineral or vitamin supplements has no clear benefit and might even be harmful.These vitamins should not be used for chronic disease prevention. Terms of Use The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP).

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